Wednesday, 24 October 2018

Cristiano Ronaldo

Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro GOIH ComM (European Portuguese: [kɾiʃˈtjɐnu ʁoˈnaɫdu]; born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Italian club Juventus and the Portugal national team. Often considered the best player in the world and regarded by many as one of the greatest players of all time Ronaldo has a record-tying five Ballon d'Or awards,[note 2] the most for a European player, and is the first player to win four European Golden Shoes. He has won 26 trophies in his career, including five league titles, five UEFA Champions League titles and one UEFA European Championship. A prolific goalscorer, Ronaldo holds the records for most official goals scored in Europe's top-five leagues (400), the UEFA Champions League (120), the UEFA European Championship , as well as those for most assists in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA European Championship (6). He has scored over 680 senior career goals for club and country.

Born and raised on the Portuguese island of Madeira, Ronaldo was diagnosed with a racing heart at age 15. He underwent an operation to treat his condition, and began his senior club career playing for Sporting CP, before signing with Manchester United at age 18 in 2003. After winning his first trophy, the FA Cup, during his first season in England, he helped United win three successive Premier League titles, a UEFA Champions League title, and a FIFA Club World Cup. By age 22, he had received Ballon d'Or and FIFA World Player of the Year nominations and at age 23, he won his first Ballon d'Or and FIFA World Player of the Year awards. In 2009, Ronaldo was the subject of the most expensive association football transferwhen he moved from Manchester United to Real Madrid in a transfer worth €94 million (£80 million).

In Madrid, Ronaldo won 15 trophies, including two La Liga titles, two Copas del Rey, four UEFA Champions League titles, two UEFA Super Cups, and three FIFA Club World Cups. Real Madrid's all-time top goalscorer, Ronaldo scored a record 34 La Liga hat-tricks, including a record-tying eight hat-tricks in the 2014–15 season and is the only player to reach 30 goals in six consecutive La Liga seasons. After joining Madrid, Ronaldo finished runner-up for the Ballon d'Or three times, behind Lionel Messi, his perceived career rival, before winning back-to-back Ballons d'Or in 2013 and 2014. After winning the 2016 and 2017 Champions Leagues, Ronaldo secured back-to-back Ballons d'Or again in 2016 and 2017. A historic third consecutive Champions League followed, making Ronaldo the first player to win the trophy five times. In 2018, he signed for Juventus in a transfer worth €100 million, the highest fee ever paid for a player over 30 years old, and the highest ever paid by an Italian club.

A Portuguese international, Ronaldo was named the best Portuguese player of all time by the Portuguese Football Federation in 2015. He made his senior debut for Portugal in 2003 at age 18, and has since had over 150 caps, including appearing and scoring in eight major tournaments, becoming Portugal's most capped player and his country's all-time top goalscorer. He scored his first international goal at Euro 2004 and helped Portugal reach the final. He took over full captaincy in July 2008, leading Portugal to their first-ever triumph in a major tournament by winning Euro 2016, and received the Silver Boot as the second-highest goalscorer of the tournament, before becoming the highest European international goalscorer of all-time. One of the most marketable athletes in the world, he was ranked the world's highest-paid athlete by Forbes in 2016 and 2017, as well as the world's most famous athlete by ESPN in 2016, 2017 and 2018.

Early life
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro was born in São Pedro, Funchal, on the island of Madeira, Portugal, and grew up in Santo António, Funchal. He is the fourth and youngest child of Maria Dolores dos Santos Aveiro (b. 1954), a cook, and José Dinis Aveiro (1953–2005), a municipal gardener and a part-time kit man. His second given name, "Ronaldo", was chosen after then-U.S. president Ronald Reagan. His great-grandmother on his father's side, Isabel da Piedade, was from the island of São Vicente, Cape Verde. He has one older brother, Hugo (b. 1975), and two older sisters, Elma (b. 1973) and Liliana Cátia "Katia" (b. 1977), who is a singer. Ronaldo grew up in a Catholic and impoverished home, sharing a room with all his siblings.

As a child, Ronaldo played for amateur team Andorinha from 1992 to 1995, where his father was the kit man,[16] and later spent two years with Nacional. In 1997, aged 12, he went on a three-day trial with Sporting CP, who signed him for a fee of £1,500. He subsequently moved from Madeira to Alcochete, near Lisbon, to join Sporting's other youth players at the club's football academy.By age 14, Ronaldo believed he had the ability to play semi-professionally, and agreed with his mother to cease his education in order to focus entirely on football. While popular with other students at school, he had been expelled after throwing a chair at his teacher, who he said had "disrespected" him. However, one year later, he was diagnosed with a racing heart, a condition that could have forced him to give up playing football. Ronaldo underwent heart surgery where a laser was used to cauterise multiple cardiac pathways, altering his resting heart rate. He was discharged from the hospital hours after the procedure and resumed training a few days later.

Sunday, 7 October 2018

Swimming

Swimming

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This article is about competitive swimming as a recreational activity. For the general article on human movement in the water, see Swimming.
"Swimmer" redirects here. For other uses, see Swimmer (disambiguation).
Swimming
Depart4x100.jpg
Start of the 4 × 100 meters relay during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing
Highest governing body FINA
First competitions 1930s
Characteristics
Contact No
Team members Teams or individuals
Venue Swimming pools or open-water
Presence
Country or region Worldwide
Olympic 1896
World Championships 1973
Paralympic 1960
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's arms and legs to move the body through water. The sport takes place in pools or open water (e.g., in a sea or lake). Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle, and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers who will each swim a different stroke. The order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques; in competition, there are distinct regulations concerning the acceptable form for each individual stroke.There are also regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps, jewelry and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are also multiple health benefits associated with the sport.
History
Main article: History of swimming

Leander swimming across the Hellespont. Detail from a painting by Bernard Picart.
Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, Beowulf, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming (Der Schwimmer oder ein Zweigespräch über die Schwimmkunst).

Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public.By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London. The recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were already over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country.


The routes taken by Webb and T.W. Burgess across the English Channel, in 1875 and 1911, respectively.
In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and successfully debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England. His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today.

Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel (between England and France), in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles (34.21 km) in 21 hours and 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T.W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911.

Other European countries also established swimming federations; Germany in 1882, France in 1890 and Hungary in 1896. The first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892.

Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912; the first international swim meet for women outside the Olympics was the 1922 Women's Olympiad. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952.

Competitive swimming
See also: List of swimming competitions

Katie Ledecky set the Olympic records in 2016 for the 400 m and 800 m freestyle.
Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century. The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. Typically, an athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, and then the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition.

The practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is often referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath. This also helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time.


World record holder and Olympic gold medalist Michael Phelps in the 400 IM.
Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool.

There are forty officially recognized individual swimming events in the pool; however the International Olympic Committee only recognizes 32 of them. The international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation ("International Swimming Federation"), better known as FINA.

Friday, 28 September 2018

bolt

"Usain" redirects here. For the organization with the acronym "USAIN", see United States Agricultural Information Network.
The Honourable
Usain Bolt
OJ CD
Bolt se aposenta com medalha de ouro no 4 x 100 metros 1039118-19.08.2016 frz-9565 (cropped).jpg
Bolt at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Personal information
Full name Usain St Leo Bolt
Nickname(s) Lightning Bolt[1]
Nationality Jamaica
Born 21 August 1986 (age 32)
Sherwood Content, Jamaica
Residence Kingston, Jamaica
Height 1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)
Weight 94 kg (207 lb)
Sport
Sport Track and field
Event(s) Sprints
Club Racers Track Club
Achievements and titles
Personal best(s)
100 m: 9.58 WR (Berlin 2009)
150 m straight: 14.35 WB
(Manchester 2009)
200 m: 19.19 WR (Berlin 2009)
300 m: 30.97 NR (Ostrava 2010)
400 m: 45.28 (Kingston 2007)
800 m: 2:07h (Kingston 2016)
Medal record
Men's athletics
Representing  Jamaica
Event 1st 2nd 3rd
Olympic Games 8 0 0
World Championships 11 2 1
World Relay Championships 0 1 0
CAC Championships 1 0 0
Commonwealth Games 1 0 0
World Junior Championships 1 2 0
World Youth Championships 1 0 0
Total 23 5 1
Association football career
Playing position Midfielder
Event 1st 2nd 3rd
100 m 6 0 1
200 m 10 1 0
4×100 m relay 7 3 0
4×400 m relay 0 1 0
Olympic Games
Gold medal – first place 2008 Beijing 100 m
Gold medal – first place 2008 Beijing 200 m
Disqualified 2008 Beijing 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 2012 London 100 m
Gold medal – first place 2012 London 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2012 London 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 2016 Rio de Janeiro 100 m
Gold medal – first place 2016 Rio de Janeiro 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2016 Rio de Janeiro 4×100 m relay
World Championships
Silver medal – second place 2007 Osaka 200 m
Silver medal – second place 2007 Osaka 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 2009 Berlin 100 m
Gold medal – first place 2009 Berlin 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2009 Berlin 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 2011 Daegu 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2011 Daegu 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 2013 Moscow 100 m
Gold medal – first place 2013 Moscow 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2013 Moscow 4×100 m relay
Gold medal – first place 2015 Beijing 100 m
Gold medal – first place 2015 Beijing 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2015 Beijing 4×100 m relay
Bronze medal – third place 2017 London 100 m
World Relay Championships
Silver medal – second place 2015 Nassau 4×100 m relay
CAC Championships
Gold medal – first place 2005 Nassau 200 m
Commonwealth Games
Gold medal – first place 2014 Glasgow 4×100 m relay
World Junior Championships
Gold medal – first place 2002 Kingston 200 m
Silver medal – second place 2002 Kingston 4×100 m relay
Silver medal – second place 2002 Kingston 4×400 m relay
World Youth Championships
Gold medal – first place 2003 Sherbrooke 200 m
CARIFTA Games
Junior (U20)
Gold medal – first place 2003 Port of Spain 200 m
Gold medal – first place 2003 Port of Spain 400 m
Representing Americas (orthographic projection).svg Americas
World Cup
Silver medal – second place 2006 Athens 200 m
Usain St Leo Bolt OJ CD (/ˈjuːseɪn/[9]; born 21 August 1986) is a Jamaican retired sprinter and world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4 × 100 metres relay. His reign as Olympic Games champion in all of these events spans three Olympics. Due to his achievements and dominance in sprint competition, he is widely considered to be the greatest sprinter of all time.

An eight-time Olympic gold medalist, Bolt won the 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 m relay at three consecutive Olympic Games, although he lost the 2008 relay gold medal about nine years after due to a teammate's doping disqualification. He gained worldwide fame for his double sprint victory in world record times at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which made him the first person to hold both records since fully automatic time became mandatory. Bolt is the only sprinter to win Olympic 100 m and 200 m titles at three consecutive Olympics (2008, 2012 and 2016).

An eleven-time World Champion, he won consecutive World Championship 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 metres relay gold medals from 2009 to 2015, with the exception of a 100 m false start in 2011. He is the most successful athlete of the World Championships, was the first athlete to win four World Championship titles in the 200 m and is the joint-most successful in the 100 m with three titles.

Bolt improved upon his second 100 m world record of 9.69 with 9.58 seconds in 2009 – the biggest improvement since the start of electronic timing. He has twice broken the 200 metres world record, setting 19.30 in 2008 and 19.19 in 2009. He has helped Jamaica to three 4 × 100 metres relay world records, with the current record being 36.84 seconds set in 2012. Bolt's most successful event is the 200 m, with three Olympic and four World titles. The 2008 Olympics was his international debut over 100 m; he had earlier won numerous 200 m medals (including 2007 World Championship silver) and holds the world under-20 and world under-18 records for the event.

His achievements as a sprinter have earned him the media nickname "Lightning Bolt", and his awards include the IAAF World Athlete of the Year, Track & Field Athlete of the Year, and Laureus World Sportsman of the Year (four times). Bolt retired after the 2017 World Championships, when he finished third in his last solo 100 m race, opted out of the 200m, and pulled up in the 4x100m relay final.

He is currently training with Australian football A-League club, the Central Coast Mariners as a left-winger.

Early years
Bolt was born on 21 August 1986 to parents Wellesley and Jennifer Bolt in Sherwood Content, a small town in Jamaica. He has a brother, Sadiki,and a sister, Sherine. His parents ran the local grocery store in the rural area, and Bolt spent his time playing cricket and football in the street with his brother, later saying, "When I was young, I didn't really think about anything other than sports."As a child, Bolt attended Waldensia Primary, where he began showing his sprint potential when he ran in his parish's annual national primary school meet. By the age of twelve, Bolt had become the school's fastest runner over the 100 metres distance.

Upon his entry to William Knibb Memorial High School, Bolt continued to focus on other sports, but his cricket coach noticed Bolt's speed on the pitch and urged him to try track and field events.Pablo McNeil, a former Olympic sprint athlete, and Dwayne Jarrett coached Bolt,encouraging him to focus his energy on improving his athletic abilities. The school had a history of success in athletics with past students, including sprinter Michael Green. Bolt won his first annual high school championships medal in 2001; he took the silver medal in the 200 metres with a time of 22.04 seconds.[1] McNeil soon became his primary coach, and the two enjoyed a positive partnership, although McNeil was occasionally frustrated by Bolt's lack of dedication to his training and his penchant for practical jokes.

Early competitions
Performing for Jamaica in his first Caribbean regional event, Bolt clocked a personal best time of 48.28 s in the 400 metres in the 2001 CARIFTA Games, winning a silver medal. The 200 m also yielded a silver, as Bolt finished in 21.81 s.

He made his first appearance on the world stage at the 2001 IAAF World Youth Championships in Debrecen, Hungary. Running in the 200 m event, he failed to qualify for the finals, but he still set a new personal best of 21.73 s. Bolt still did not take athletics or himself too seriously, however, and he took his mischievousness to new heights by hiding in the back of a van when he was supposed to be preparing for the 200 m finals at the CARIFTA Trials. He was detained by the police for his practical joke, and there was an outcry from the local community, which blamed coach McNeil for the incident. However, the controversy subsided, and both McNeil and Bolt went to the CARIFTA Games, where Bolt set championship records in the 200 m and 400 m with times of 21.12 s and 47.33 s, respectively. He continued to set records with 20.61 s and 47.12 s finishes at the Central American and Caribbean Junior Championships.

Bolt is one of only nine athletes (along with Valerie Adams, Veronica Campbell-Brown, Jacques Freitag, Yelena Isinbayeva, Jana Pittman, Dani Samuels, David Storl, and Kirani James) to win world championships at the youth, junior, and senior level of an athletic event. Former Prime Minister P. J. Patterson recognised Bolt's talent and arranged for him to move to Kingston, along with Jermaine Gonzales, so he could train with the Jamaica Amateur Athletic Association (JAAA) at the University of Technology, Jamaica.

Wednesday, 19 September 2018

Boxing

Boxing

"Boxer" and "Prizefighter" redirect here. For other uses, see Boxing (disambiguation), Boxer (disambiguation), Boxers (disambiguation), and Prizefighter (disambiguation).

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Boxing
Boxing Tournament in Aid of King George's Fund For Sailors at the Royal Naval Air Station, Henstridge, Somerset, July 1945 A29806.jpg
Two Royal Navy men boxing for charity. The modern sport was codified in England.
Also known as Western Boxing, Pugilism See note.
Focus Punching, striking
Country of origin Prehistoric
Parenthood Bare-knuckle boxing
Olympic sport 688 BC (Ancient Greece)
1904 (modern)
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring.

Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. The result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, resigns by throwing in a towel, or is pronounced the winner or loser based on the judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, the fight is considered a draw-what in other sports would be referred to as a tie-(professional boxing). In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, in the case of a draw - the judges use technical criteria to choose the most deserving winner of the bout.

While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Middle East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE.The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC.Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules.

History
Ancient history
See also: Ancient Greek boxing
A painting of Minoan youths boxing, from an Akrotiri fresco circa BCE 1650. This is the earliest documented use of boxing gloves.

A boxing scene depicted on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 336 BC, British Museum
The earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BCE.Later depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, and in Hittite art from Asia Minor.[citation needed] A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes (c. 1350 BCE) sh
ows both boxers and spectators. The earliest evidence for fist fighting with any kind of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete (c. 1500–1400 BCE).

In Ancient Greece boxing was a well developed sport and enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC. The boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands in order to protect themselves. There were no rounds and boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used, which meant heavyweights had a tendency to dominate. The style of boxing practiced typically featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, and with the right arm drawn back ready to strike. It was the head of the opponent which was primarily targeted, and there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common.

Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome.[citation needed] In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Eventually harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon. The Romans even introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres. The Roman form of boxing was often a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However, especially in later times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, and their lives were not given up without due consideration. Often slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor. This is where the term ring came from. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality. It was not until the late 16th century that boxing re-surfaced in London.[citation needed]

Friday, 14 September 2018

Sport of athletics

Sport of athletics

For the collection of competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, see Athletics (physical culture). For other uses, see Athletics (disambiguation).
Athletics
Athletics competitions.jpg
Highest governing body IAAF
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Type Outdoor or indoor
Presence
Olympic Present since inaugural 1896 Olympics
Paralympic Present since inaugural 1960 Paralympics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking.

The results of racing events are decided by finishing position (or time, where measured), while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country.

Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC. The rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, and were then spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.

The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships.

The word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής (athlētēs, "combatant in public games") from ἆθλον (athlon, "prize") or ἆθλος (athlos, "competition"). Initially, the term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based primarily on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking, jumping and throwing. This definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics also have a similar meaning.


In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historic usage of the term. The word "athletics" is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, and is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running (although cross country running is typically considered as a separate sport).

History
Antiquity

A copy of the Ancient Greek statue Discobolus, portraying a discus thrower
Athletic contests in running, walking, jumping and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC. The Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, and the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion. This later expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon. Athletics competitions also took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded later around 500 BC.

Tuesday, 11 September 2018

What is a Sport

Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a tie game; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.

Sport is generally recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition,and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts (checkers), Go and xiangqi, and limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports.

Sport is usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first. It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.

Records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. Sport is also a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, and reaching wider audiences through broadcasting. Sport betting is in some cases severely regulated, and in some cases is central to the sport.

According to A.T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013. The world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport.



Meaning and usage
Etymology
The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining".[8]

Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise.[9] Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation.[10]

Nomenclature
The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept (e.g. "children taking part in sport"), with "sports" used to describe multiple activities (e.g. "football and rugby are the most popular sports in England"). American English uses "sports" for both terms.

Definition
See also: Game § Definitions

The International Olympic Committee recognises some board games as sports including chess.

Show jumping, an equestrian sport
The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations (including association football, athletics, cycling, tennis, equestrian sports, and more), and is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.

SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should:

have an element of competition
be in no way harmful to any living creature
not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such as arena football)
not rely on any "luck" element specifically designed into the sport.
They also recognise that sport can be primarily physical (such as rugby or athletics), primarily mind (such as chess or Go), predominantly motorised (such as Formula 1 or powerboating), primarily co-ordination (such as billiard sports), or primarily animal-supported (such as equestrian sport).

The inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports.[Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports.
Competition


There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sport involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or SportAccord.

Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those competed just for fun.

In order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.

In competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable performance, (e.g. gender, weight and age). The measurement of the result may be objective or subjective, and corrected with "handicaps" or penalties. In a race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement. In gymnastics or diving the result is decided by a panel of judges, and therefore subjective. There are many shades of judging between boxing and mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned by judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match time.

Monday, 3 September 2018

2020 Summer Olympics

2020 Summer Olympics

"Tokyo 2020" redirects here. For the Paralympics, see 2020 Summer Paralympics.
Games of the XXXII Olympiad
An O-like shape, decorated with a complex checkered design and featuring a 12-pointed star in the center negative space, sits atop the words "Tokyo 2020". The Olympic rings are placed underneath.
Host city Tokyo, Japan
Motto Discover Tomorrow
Nations 207 (expected)
Athletes 11,091 (expected)
Events 339 in 33 sports (50 disciplines)
Opening 24 July (23 months from now)
Closing 9 August
Stadium New National Stadium
Summer
← Rio 2016 Paris 2024 →
Winter
← Pyeongchang 2018 Beijing 2022 →
Olympic rings
Part of a series on
2020 Summer Olympics[show]
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad  and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013. These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer programme after 2008).

Bidding process
Further information: Bids for the 2020 Summer Olympics
Tokyo, Istanbul, and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar) were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn.

Host city election
The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority.

2020 Summer Olympics host city election[4][dead link]
City NOC name Round 1 Runoff Round 2
Tokyo Japan 42 60
Istanbul Turkey 26 49 36
Madrid Spain 26 45
Development and preparation
The Tokyo metropolitan government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen (over 3.67 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Jpanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost 400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors. But East Japan Railway Company  is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport. Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area.There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.

The Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori.[8] Olympic and Paralympic Minister Shunichi Suzuki is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government.
Japan has traditionally used Olympic events to showcase new technology. Telecom company NTT DoCoMo signed a deal with Finland's Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Olympics.
Venues and infrastructure

The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower would be used as the IBC-MPC Complex.

View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park
It was confirmed in February 2012 that the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would be demolished and reconstructed, and receive a £1 billion upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics. As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched. In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000.However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the New National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity to between 60,000–80,000 depending by event

Twenty-eight of the thirty-three competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres (4.97 miles) of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed.

It was reported in September 2016 that a review panel said that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could quadruple from the original estimate, and therefore proposed a major overhaul to the current plan to reduce costs, including moving venues outside
Heritage Zone
Seven venues for nine sports will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.


Yokohama Stadium – Baseball
Venue Events Capacity Status
Olympic Stadium Opening and closing ceremonies 60,102 Under construction
Athletics
Football (women's final 7 August)
Yoyogi National Gymnasium Handball 13,291 Existing
Ryōgoku Kokugikan Boxing 11,098 Existing
Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium Table tennis 10,000 Existing
Nippon Budokan Judo 14,471 Existing
Karate
Tokyo International Forum Weightlifting 5,012 Existing
Imperial Palace Garden Athletics (marathon, race walk) 5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route Temporary
Musashinonomori Park Road cycling (start road races) Temporary.